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Similarly, the difference between the cytochrome c of a bacterium and yeast, wheat, moth, tuna, pigeon, and horse ranges from 64% to 69%.
The evolution of the Order Proboscidea has been proposed as a series of adaptive shifts in response to changing environments and evolutionary trends in skull and dentition that were linked to increasing dietary specialization.
Three periods of diversification were noted, the first in the Oligocene, the second in the early-middle Miocene, and the last in the Pliocene.
Three ecomorphological categories based on dental functional morphology were identified in each of the three periods, suggesting that these are stable categories through time.
The biomolecular data used for such calculations are usually nucleotide sequences for DNA or amino acid sequences for proteins.
The benchmarks for determining the mutation rate are often fossil or archaeological dates.