Applying the art of war to dating

Facile Raman-based detection of this luminescence, along with characteristic peaks of rutile, anatase, calcium sulfate, or barium sulfate, can identify the type of titanium white pigment and narrow its manufacture date range.) was introduced as a pigment in the early 20th century and by mid-century was as popular as lead or zinc whites.Although titanium dioxide does occur in mineral form and therefore has been found in archaeological and historic contexts (), the detection of titanium white is most often a telltale sign of modern overpainting (or outright forgery) of older artworks.Samples from Canada and Morocco were chosen to provide comparisons for different geologic deposits. 3) reveals that the Mc Intyre mine in New York and the Faraday mine in Canada have high levels of La, Ce, and Nd, with significantly higher amounts of Nd in the Mc Intyre mine.

Concentrations of REE in different samples of TITANOX pigments compared to those of the ilmenite from the Mc Intyre mine (New York) and average concentrations of the four paintings analyzed in Fig. Error bars on the TITANOX and ilmenite samples indicate a 5% instrumental error, while those on the painting average indicate SD of the four different paint samples. Concentrations of REE in different samples of TITANOX pigments compared to those of the ilmenite from the Mc Intyre mine (New York) and average concentrations of the four paintings analyzed in Fig. Error bars on the TITANOX and ilmenite samples indicate a 5% instrumental error, while those on the painting average indicate SD of the four different paint samples. To determine whether the luminescence marker for coprecipitated pigments could be used to infer creation dates of works of art, we performed a survey of 109 oil paintings of known provenance created between 19 by artists working in the United States, which should contain paints dating from the period in which luminescent titanium white pigments were manufactured.

Transmission electron microscopy has the capability to distinguish mechanically mixed and coprecipitated pigments (Our technical investigations of abstract expressionist paintings revealed strong, distinctive sets of peaks in Raman spectra of certain titanium white paints (Fig.

1) that were not ascribable to known pigments or fillers and did not match spectra in common Raman databases including the Infrared and Raman Users Group (IRUG) database, RRUFF, e-vibrational spectroscopic databases of artists’ materials database (e-VISART), University College London Raman Spectroscopic Library of Natural and Synthetic Pigments, Dipartimento di Fisica E Scienze della Terra, and the Romanian Database of Raman Spectroscopy.

REE levels in the pure pigment TITANOX RA are within the detection limits of ICP-MS but comparatively low (for Nd, 25 ng/g), so bars are nearly invisible on this scale. REE levels in the pure pigment TITANOX RA are within the detection limits of ICP-MS but comparatively low (for Nd, 25 ng/g), so bars are nearly invisible on this scale. Figure S2 displays the occurrence of pigments through time, and table S4 provides a summary of the works that display luminescence peaks indicative of the coprecipitated pigments.

The anatase/calcium coprecipitate (as detected by the luminescence) is first found in a work dating from 1938, well after the pigment’s initial manufacture date of 1925; of the 18 other paintings analyzed from 1938 or before, 5 use lead white, 6 use zinc white, and 10 use anatase titanium white that shows no luminescence.

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