Dating stanley no 4 planes
Most metal bench planes, and some larger wooden ones, are designed with a rear handle known as a tote. This is largely a matter of cutting with the grain or against the grain respectively, referring to the side grain of the piece of wood being worked."Block planes" are characterized by the absence of a chipbreaker and the cutting iron bedded with the bevel up. 6, and the jointer planes at twenty-two to twenty-four inches in length are No. The grain direction can be determined by looking at the edge or side of the work piece.Woodworking machinery that perform a similar function as hand planes include the jointer and the thickness planer, also called a thicknesser; the job these specialty power tools can still be done by hand planers and skilled manual labor as it was for many centuries.When rough lumber is reduced to dimensional lumber, a large electric motor or internal combustion engine will drive a thickness planer that removes a certain percentage of excess wood to create a uniform, smooth surface on all four sides of the board and in specialty woods, may also plane the cut edges.Generally all planes are used to flatten, reduce the thickness of, and impart a smooth surface to a rough piece of lumber or timber.
Though most planes are pushed across a piece of wood, holding it with one or both hands, Japanese planes are pulled toward the body, not pushed away.
A cutter which extends below the bottom surface, or sole, of the plane slices off shavings of wood.
A large, flat sole on a plane guides the cutter to remove only the highest parts of an imperfect surface, until, after several passes, the surface is flat and smooth.
The Roman planes resemble modern planes in essential function, most having iron wrapping a wooden core top, bottom, front and rear and an iron blade secured with a wedge.
One example found in Cologne has a body made entirely of bronze without a wooden core.