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In such cases subjective element cannot be ruled out.

But, for a single culture site the method is quite reliable.

Astronomical data have been applied in the study of geological ice ages by calculating the curves for major fluctuation of solar radiation.

Consequently, the chronology worked out for the geological deposits helped in dating the prehistoric tools found in these deposits. There are certain antiquities and potteries which by themselves have acquired a dating value.

This closely agrees with the fact that the seals from Indus Valley style from Ur, Kish and Tell Asmar and other sites fall within the range of 2500-1500 B. When a group or type of objects are found together under circumstances suggesting contemporanity they are said to be associated.

It is nearly always association with other phenomena that gives a first clue as to the use, the age and chronological attribution of a potential datum, but age at least may sometimes be inferred from position in a geological deposit or a layer of peat.

Basing on this principle, the cultural assemblages found in different layers can be assigned a chronological personality. In practice it is found that the mounds are disturbed9 by all sorts of pits and dumps.

For example, if the cultural contents of the lower deposit are Mauryan in character, appropriately this deposit may be assigned a date between 400-200 B. Similarly, if the cultural equipment of the upper deposit are of the Sunga period, this deposit has to placed between 200-73 B. Quite often, the archaeologist decided the change of stratum on the basis of the feed of the deposit.

This parallelism is formed due to trade relations, particularly wehen trade followed in both directions.

However this formula has not been accepted by many archaeologists.

Further this formula has been disproved on many occasions. Pottery is probably the most abundantly available antique material in any archaeological site.

For example, beads closely resembling those from the temple repositories at Cnoss and dating from C.1600 B.

C were found in a late context (Period V) at Harappa. By noting the association of these beads it has been possible to trace a archaeological datum line across Indian sub-continent and Mesopotamia.

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