Targum pseudo jonathan dating

What interval separated this public reading of the Law from the reading of the Law as a portion of synagogue worship we have no means of knowing.

The probability is that in no long time the practice of reading the Law with an Aramaic interpretation was common in all Jewish synagogues.

The Aramaic of the Targums is Western Aramaic, but it is Western Aramaic tinctured with Hebrew.

The fact that the returned captives originally had spoken Hebrew would doubtless have its effect on their Aramaic. One very marked feature is the presence of yath, the sign of the accusative translating the Hebrew 'eth, whereas in ordinary Aramaic, Eastern and Western, this is unused, except as supporting the oblique case of pronouns.

Thus there is a difference, subtle but observable, between the English of our the King James Version of the Bible and that of Shakespeare, Bacon, or even Hooker.

Or, to take an example more cognate, if less accessible to the general reader, the difference may be seen if one compares the Syriac of the New Testament Peshitta with that of the Peshitta of the Old Testament.

The word is used as the Aramaic interpretation of shiggayon (Psalms 7:1), a term the precise force of which is yet unfixed.Further, the intensive construction of infinitive with finite sense, so frequent in Hebrew, though little used in ordinary Aramaic, appears in the Targums wherever it occurs in the Hebrew text.As a negative characteristic there is to be noted the comparative rarity with which the emphatic repetition of the personal pronoun, so frequent in ordinary Aramaic, occurs in the Targumic. Mode in Which the Targums Were Given: The account given in Nehemiah (8:8) of the reading of the Law to the people not only mentions that Ezra's helpers read "distinctly" (mephorash), but "gave the sense" (som sekhel) "and caused them to understand the reading," the King James Version (wayyabhinu ba-miqra').This threefold process implies more than merely distinct enunciation.If this passage is compared with Ezra it would seem that mephorash ought to mean "interpreted." The most natural explanation is that alongside of the readers of the Law there were interpreters, meturghemanim, who repeated in Aramaic what had been read in Hebrew.

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